One study says that it can. "Brain scans have revealed that rejection and physical pain manifest themselves in identical regions of the brain. In fact, "the two systems are so tightly linked that individuals who took Tylenol (a drug that treats physical pain) reported less emotional pain from rejection. The drug was ineffective in minimizing the effects from other emotions."
Find out more about the science behind what makes rejection hurt so much: http://www.policymic.com/mobile/articles/56291/the-science-behind-why-rejection-hurts-so-damn-much